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West Europe

Bachrach, Bernard S. Early Medieval Jewish Policy in Western Europe. Minneapolis, 1977

Bachrach, Bernard S. Jews in Barbarian Europe,  Kansas 1977

Bowers, W. P. ‘‘Jewish Communities in Spain in the Time of Paul the Apostle.’’ Journal of Theological Studies, n.s. 26 (1975): 395-402.

Bradbury, Scott. "The Jews of Spain, c. 235–638." In The Cambridge History of Judaism, vol. 4: The Late Roman-Rabbinic Period, ed. Steven T. Katz, 508-17. Cambridge 2006

Bradbury, Scott, ed. and trans. Severus of Minorca, Letter on the Conversion of the Jews. Oxford, 1996

Chazan, Robert, Medieval Jewry in Northern France, Baltimore, 1977

Collins, Roger. Early Medieval Spain: Unity in Diversity, 400-1000. New York, 1995.

De Lange, Nicolas. “The Hebrew Language in the European Diaspora.” In Studies on the Jewish Diaspora in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods, ed. Benjamin Isaac and Aharon Oppenheimer, 111-37. Tel Aviv, 1996.

Frishman Asher, The Early Ashkenazi Jews: Since their Settlement in North West Europe to the first Crusade, Tel-Aviv (Hebrew)

Ginzburg, C. ‘‘La conversione degli Ebrei di Minorca (417–418).” Quarderni storici 79 (1992): 277–89.

Geissler, Klaus. Die Juden In Deutschland Und Bayern Bis Zur Mitte Des Vierzehnten Jahrhunderts. München, 1976

Katz, Shlomo, The Jews in the Visigotic and Frankish Kingdoms of Spain and Gaul, Cambridge (Mass.), 1937

Kisch, Guido. The Jews in medieval Germany :‎  a study of their legal and social status, New York 19702

Leon, Harry J. The Jews of Ancient Rome. Peabody, MA, 1995, 1960.

Noy, David. Jewish Inscriptions of Western Europe, vol. 1: Italy (excluding the City of Rome), Spain and Gaul. Cambridge, 1993.

Noy, David. Jewish Inscriptions of Western Europe, vol. 2: The City of Rome. Cambridge, 1995.

Noy, David., in: Bernard D. Cooperman and Barbara Garvin (eds.,)"The Jews in Italy in the first to sixth centuries C.E," in: The Jews of Italy; Memory and Identity. Ed. by, Maryland, 2000.

Rajak, Tessa. “Synagogue and Community in the Graeco-Roman Diaspora.” In Jews in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities, ed. John R. Bartlett, 22-38. London and New York, 2002.

Rutgers, Leonard V. The Jews in Late Ancient Rome: Evidence of Cultural Interaction in the Roman Diaspora. Leiden, 1995.

Rutgers, Leonard V. "The Jews of Italy, c. 235-638." In The Cambridge History of Judaism, vol. 4: The Late Roman-Rabbinic Period, ed. Steven T. Katz, 492-508. Cambridge, 2006.

Schawrzfuchs, Simon. "France and Germany under the Carolingians," in: Roth, Cecil (ed.), World History of Jewish People  - The Dark Ages, Tel Aviv,  1966, 122-142.

Schawrzfuchs, Simon. Les Juifs de France, Paris 1975.

Toch, Michael. "The Jews in Europe 500–1050." In The New Cambridge Medieval History of Europe 1: c. 500--c. 700, ed. Paul Fouracre, 547-70. Cambridge, 2003.

Wasserstein, A. “Calendaric Implications of a Fourth-Century Jewish Inscription from Sicily.” Scripta Classica Israelica 11 (1991–92): 162-65.

Wittke, Anne, Eckhart Olshausen, and Richard Szydlak. Brill’s New Pauly Historical Atlas of the Ancient World. Boston, 2010.